I make it with pork neck bones stock or thinly slices pork and lots of sliced ginger. , New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Link to Full Report in USDA Nutrient Database, "Help is on the way for consumers confused by the wide array of Asian vegetables on sale", https://farmtotableasiansecrets.wordpress.com/2011/10/05/shanghai-bok-choy/, https://www.cooksillustrated.com/how_tos/10526-regular-vs-shanghai-baby-bok-choy, "Regimens: Eat Your Vegetables, but Not Too Many", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bok_choy&oldid=993305298, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 22:50. https://www.allrecipes.com/article/how-to-cook-mustard-greens Toisan ,which part? Mustard greens are actually the leaves of the mustard plant and is considered to have originated from Himalayan region of India and has been consumed for more than … Although the term 白菜 is pronounced "baak choi" in Cantonese, the same characters are pronounced "bái cài" by Mandarin speakers and used as the name for Napa cabbage which they call "Chinese cabbage" when speaking English. A couple of different subspecies, or cultivars, of brown mustard are grown particularly for the leafy greens: The subspecies Brassica juncea subsp. While many Cantonese kids grew up with gai choy and its pickled equivalent (haam choy), Chinese mustard greens have many other varieties and names. They’re leafier, with more tender stems, making them a good candidate for stir-fries. When choosing mustard greens, pick younger, smaller plants. However, the leaves and flowers of certain cultivars are cultivated for use in the edible garden, having a hot mustard flavor. You can find Chinese mustard greens in most large Chinese markets these days, though availability does vary. Watch out though. Also be sure to give them some space and avoid piling other items on top of them, or they may bruise. Some areas of the world also grow it for its spicy seeds. Other than the ambiguous term "Chinese cabbage", the most widely used name in North America for the chinensis variety is simply bok choy (Cantonese for "white vegetable") or siu bok choy (Cantonese, for "small white vegetable"; as opposed to dai bok choy meaning "big white vegetable" which refers to the larger Napa cabbage). In a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) reference serving, raw bok choy provides 54 kilojoules (13 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin A (30% DV), vitamin C (54% DV) and vitamin K (44% DV), while providing folate, vitamin B6 and calcium in moderate amounts (10–17% DV) (see table). At their peak from January through April, mustard greens may also be referred to as Gai Choy or Chinese mustard. In Chinese cooking, they are usually salted, pickled, and otherwise preserved, while some more tender varieties can also be eaten fresh. Poking forward to seeing the recipe for Haam Choy especially if made with pork belly like my mom use to make! and talk more about how to use them in Chinese cooking. https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/218501/asian-inspired-mustard-greens I’m looking forward to seeing your recipe for homemade preserved mustard. Mustard greens (Brassica juncea), also known as Indian mustard, Chinese mustard and leaf mustard, is a species of mustard plant and belongs to Brassica family, which also includes cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, etc. Time and again, my worldwide web pursuits for solid recipes that I know my family will eat has landed me back here.”, Pickled Mustard Greens: Grandma’s Homemade Haam Choy. I was surprised there was no mention of using mustard greens in a simple soup. You can also look for the Chinese characters: 芥菜. “If it’s bitter, then it’s probably good for you.” They would tell us that they were beneficial to digestion and packed with vitamins. Some are stir-fried, prized for their tender and nutritious leaves, while others are harvested for their thick stems, which are pickled and preserved. Spinach. chinensis) is a type of Chinese cabbage. Chinese Mustard Greens (芥菜) Chinese mustard greens or jiè cài (芥菜) in Mandarin and gai choy in Cantonese, sometimes called Indian mustard, leaf mustard, or mustard cabbage, is a very healthy vegetable. Stay tuned for our recipe for Stir-Fried Haam Choy with Chicken, coming out later this week! Mustard Greens. The greens have a slightly peppery flavor and can be steamed, boiled or sauteed. To get preserved mustard greens, the mustard green plant undergoes a process that includes pickling, drying, steaming and heavy salting.The result is an intensely flavoured vegetable that can range from a light to dark brown colour. “Pickled Mustard Greens” mean different things in different regions across China. The plant appears in some form in African, Bangladeshi, Chinese, Italian, Indian, Japanese, Nepali, Pakistani, Korean, and African-American (soul food) cuisines. Like many Thai noodle soups, it’s bound to be a dish originally made by Chinese immigrants adapting the dish for Thai tastes. That’s how important the stems are—some people don’t even bother with the leaves! Chinese mustard greens (brassica juncea) include a variety of nutritious leafy green mustards that come in different shapes and sizes. (This vegetable is also important in Indian cooking.). Mustard greens are another great fall vegetable. Chinese mustard greens are quite bitter, with a slight peppery taste. It is an old heirloom variety of mustard leaf from South China, with green serrated leaves, & is prized locally for the texture and flavour of the greens. Regular bok choy is usually more expensive and has a dark crinkly colored leaves and stem portions that are white and crisp texture that is more suitable to Cantonese style cooking, stir fries, and simple or raw preparations. They have very different flavor profiles. Chinensis varieties do not form heads and have green leaf blades with lighter bulbous bottoms instead, forming a cluster reminiscent of mustard greens. We prepare our own stir-fried xuelihong at home often. Bok choy contains glucosinolates. My maternal grandparents ancestral village is there too. Stay tuned for that one – courtesy of my grandma! Kai Choy or Gai Choy is the Cantonese name for Chinese mustard, a pungent vegetable from the mustard plant species that is slightly bitter tasting. Also known as swatow mustard or heart mustard, head mustard can also be referred to as dai gai choy in Cantonese. Sounds like your family has excellent access to delicious food ;-). Chinensis varieties do not form heads and have green leaf blades with lighter bulbous bottoms instead, forming a cluster reminiscent of mustard greens. Spicy sour mustard greens (酸辣菜尾) is a very popular Malaysian-style Chinese dish especially when you have plenty of leftover meat but have no idea what to do with them. Of course, we are not nutritionists or dieticians, so definitely do your own research! Using aromatics like garlic, ginger and spicy dried chilis is a great start. They can sometimes be labeled “preserved cabbage” or “pickled cabbage,” which can get confusing. There are many different varieties of mustard greens. Maybe it’s more of a Guandong style or my village Toisan? The seeds of Chinese mustard greens … Plant crops so that they come to harvest before temperature average greater than 75°F (24°C). We prepare our own stir-fried xuelihong at home often. , In Mandarin Chinese, a common name is 青菜 qīng cài (literally "green vegetable"). , Bok choy evolved in China, where it has been cultivated since the 5th century AD. What is Kai Choy? It can also be spelled pak choi, bok choi, and pak choy. Mustard requires 30 to 40 days to reach harvest. You are no doubt already familiar with the mustard family of plants because the science name for this family is Brassicaceae the brassica family. They are in the cruciferous vegetable family, and like its relatives, cabbage, kale, broccoli, bok choy, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower, they are rich in vitamins and minerals, as well as anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. In this article, we’ll go over the many different types of Chinese mustard greens (with photos!) Names can vary depending on where the growers or store staff are from. Put the mustard slices in the pot first, then add the tofu Stir-fried/braised chicken with pickled mustard greens, better known in our family as haam choy chow gai, is a Cantonese classic recipe and one of my Grandma’s favorite dishes. Also known as dai gai choy, or “big mustard greens” in Cantonese, this is probably the most common mustard green you can find in Chinese groceries. Raw bok choy is 95% water, 2% carbohydrates, 1% protein and less than 1% fat (table). Latin name: Brassica oleracaea, Alboglabra Group. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Now considered a subspecies of Brassica rapa, this group was originally classified as its own species under the name Brassica chinensis by Carl Linnaeus. Wosun greens (Chinese Lettuce leaves) | Chinese Lettuce leave is names as Wosun leaves in China. How do I really know this? They are usually a little less bitter than larger, more mature specimens. Characteristics: Though originally from Persia, this is one of … Current Facts Mustard greens are also commonly referred to as Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, or leaf mustard, and botanically classified as Brassica juncea. (Judy used the same technique for making Chinese preserved greens from our own garden kale.). These days, leaf mustard (雪里红) is also readily available at well-stocked Chinese markets. We have a variety grown mainly for the stem. This variety is not as common. It is pronounced “hahm choy.”. Chinese mustard greens, or jiè cài (芥菜) in Mandarin and gai choy in Cantonese, have been cultivated for centuries. Bok choy (American English), pak choi (British English), or pok choi (Brassica rapa subsp. The mustard condiment made from the seeds of the B. juncea is called brown mustard and is considered to be spicier than yellow mustard. Chinese mustard greens leaves are usually made into a variety of home-cooked vegetables for consumption. Step5. Thanks for your helpful and descriptive comment! They look almost like a pointier version of arugula. , What is labelled Bok Choy may come in 2 forms: traditional true bok choy (Chinese: 小白菜; lit. 1. Gai lan is a dark-green vegetable with thick, glossy … Well, when your grandma comes to your house for Thanksgiving dinner, and she brings her own food (this dish) it’s pretty convincing. 2. Mustard greens prefer full sun, but some varieties can also handle part shade. Sow mustard in autumn or early winter in mild winter regions. While the new trending is to eat the leaves as well, mainly used as a green vegetable stir fry. These dark leafy greens are very high in Vitamin A. Mustard can be seen all over the hillsides in parts of California. Properly salting the greens and adding a pinch of sugar is another easy way soften that bitter edge and enjoy the true flavor of this healthy Chinese leafy green.  They are a member of the family of Brassicaceae or Cruciferae, also commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family. Mustard greens may be found year-round with peak season fall through spring. We’ll have to give it a try. Look for these characters on the label: 雪菜 (xuě cài). It is a brassica juncea species of mustard plant. You can pre-blanch them and cook them with ginger and/or a little sugar to balance the bitterness. We’re Bill, Judy, Sarah, and Kaitlin– a family of four cooks sharing our home-cooked and restaurant-style recipes. 'small white vegetable') or Shanghai bok choy (Chinese: 上海青; lit. The leaves are delicate and may freeze.  According to the case study published by her treating physicians, raw bok choy releases an enzyme which can inhibit the uptake of iodine, when eaten in large amounts over extended periods. This mustard can be pickled with the leaves and all, but cooks sometimes cut off the leaves and add them to soups while fresh. 'Shanghai green'). They’re such a versatile ingredient for so many dishes. You can tell it apart from other greens due to its spiky leaves. Chinese lettuce is mainly grown for its stem. Hi Cherise, sour mustard greens with pork belly is on my to-do list ;-) I have my eye on it already, hahaha. Mustard is a hardy leaf vegetable with a rosette of large light or dark green curly leaves that grow to 3 feet (.9m) tall. Light, delicious and quick. The functions of Chinese Mustard greens. The texture of Shanghai bok choy is less crisp and gets slimy if overcooked but otherwise can be substituted in many cooking applications when true bok choy is unavailable.. You may see other spelling variations. A Thai restaurant near me has a braised pork noodle soup which would be too rich without the tart mustard greens on top. Chinese leave Lettuce 莴笋叶. Sunning yan, Hi Sue-on, you are right. Chinese Broccoli. Sometimes we see the larger version of dai gai choy, while sometimes it’s only the stubbier head mustard variety. Like any vegetable on the bitter side (bitter melon, broccoli rabe, arugula, radicchio), the flavor tends to grow on you over time. Homemade pickled mustard greens recipe: This suan cai recipe is a very simple and … Leafy Chinese mustard greens, also known as snow mustard greens or xuě lǐ hóng (雪里红) in Chinese, are now quite common in Chinese supermarkets. Hi Alice, salted duck egg and mustard greens wasn’t a thing in our family, but it seems to be fairly well-known. chinensis) is a type of Chinese cabbage. It is available as a mature green or as a baby version that is smaller in size and more tender in texture. Chinensis varieties are popular in southern China and Southeast Asia. Squid Stir-fry with Pickled Mustard Greens, Stir-fried Chinese Mustard Greens (Xuelihong), Chinese Beef Stir-Fry with YouTiao (Chinese Fried Dough). Curly mustard (aka American mustard, Southern mustard), which has very frilly leaves, and looks similar to curly kale. As a salad green mizuna can be steamed, boiled, stir-fried or used to complement other greens mixed together for a salad, especially Red Asian Mustard greens. Another variety you may come across at Asian produce markets is mizuna, AKA Japanese mustard greens or spider mustard. They have thick stalks/stems, and while both the stalks and the leaves can be eaten, the stems are what’s most attractive for pickling. Finish off with drizzling the egg white in just before serving. Also known as Chai Buey (菜尾) which literally means ‘leftovers”, this humble spicy and sour stew is so comforting and incredibly easy to prepare. Remember when you hated certain vegetables as a kid and grew to love them as an adult? This is especially true if you are growing the plants to harvest young greens. and Malaysia (Shangri-La), Hi nick, so true. Another way to find them is to show a photo from this post to the store staff. As you can tell from this name, the Crucifereae family was the family of cruciferous … Of course, this also depends on how fresh they were when you bought them! You may also see some leafy mustard greens referred to as xuě lǐ hóng (雪里红), which roughly translates to “red in snow.” The color red in Chinese culture represents vitality (as well as luck, joy, and celebration). Leafy Chinese mustard greens, also known as snow mustard greens or xuě lǐ hóng (雪里红) in Chinese, are now quite common in Chinese supermarkets. Mustard Greens (Brassica juncea variety rugosa) also known as Indian Mustard, Chinese Mustard and Leaf Mustard is a type of mustard plant with edible leaves, stem and seeds. Sun and Temperature Requirements. Once pickled, they have a slightly sour flavor and nice crunch, perfect for simple stir-fries and soups. Their familiar spicy-mustard flavor lends itself well to stir-fries and sautés, as well as salad mix. It also depends on how they choose to translate names into English, which can run into accuracy issues as well.  Shanghai bok choy has greater availability in most American Markets and has mild tasting spoon shaped leaves that are lighter green with stems that are jade green instead of white. In the UK and South Africa, the term pak choi is used. Subscribe for the latest updates on new recipes, and get started with our family's Top 25 Recipe eBook! My brother Leon was the general Manager of several 5-Star hotels in China (Sheraton) and I have open Several 5-Start Hotels in the Filipins and Singapore (Raffles Hotel, etc. ) Young leaves can be eaten in mixed salads and older leaves are usually cooked as greens. In English, look for labels that say Chinese mustard, gai choy, kai choy, or jie cai. Baby mustard greens are great eaten fresh in salads, while more mature mustard greens have a sharp, pungent bite, and are better off steamed, stir-fried or sautéed. These compounds have been reported to prevent cancer in small doses, but, like many substances, can be toxic to humans in large doses, particularly to people who are already seriously ill. Mustard greens definitely fall into the “healthy” category. Mustard … These pungent leafy greens from the brassica family are traditional fare in Asia, Africa, the Southeastern US, and other regional pockets. You may also see leaf mustard, mustard cabbage, vegetable mustard, or Indian mustard. Less commonly, the descriptive English names Chinese chard, Chinese mustard, celery mustard, and spoon cabbage are also employed. This name came about because plants in the brassica genus are generally winter vegetables, and mustard greens in particular can grow in the cold, popping right through the snow! \"Mustard greens\" is a common name that is often used to describe a wide variety of different plants in the mustard family. There are two types of preserved mustard greens… Stemmed varieties last longer in storage (5-6 days) than the leafy varieties (3-4 days). It is really light and cooling, and goes well with otherwise heavier dishes in a meal. Things can get confusing, however, as there are many different types, each with different uses in the kitchen. , In the Philippines, it is called péchay in Spanish and pichay or petsay in Tagalog. In Australia, the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries has redefined many transcribed names to refer to specific cultivars. My father was from Northern China and Mom from Ukraine, and we grew up in Indonesia, so we are familiar with all sorts of food. Let’s go over the different types of mustard available and their uses. Also known as: Chinese broccoli, kai lan. Learning how to cook bitter vegetables properly is key to enjoying them. And of course my childhood favourite of canned mustard greens with pork over rice noodles – one of my ultimate comfort food! The leaves, seeds, and stems of this mustard variety are edible. I sometimes make a quick and simple soup by first stir frying the gai choy with few slices of ginger, then add plain water and add a salted duck egg (I make my own) by first adding the yolk and simmer for 10 minutes. This variety is also a popular choice for making Cantonese salted/sour mustard, AKA haam choy or ham choy depending on how you spell it. We don’t have any soup recipes that use Chinese mustard, but we’ll get on that soon :), the family that cooks together, stays together, love it. Learn how your comment data is processed. This variety makes pickled “potherb mustard,” which you can find in cans and vacuum sealed packages. Being winter-hardy, they are increasingly grown in Northern Europe. While Brassicaceae has become the most commonly used science name for this plant family, it was better known in earlier years as the Crucifereae family. Very diplomatic, wouldn't you say? Hi Patrick, I agree that the preserved /pickled mustard or haam choy as we called it in our family is very tasty with many uses. It’s featured in Kaitlin’s Taiwanese Beef Noodle Soup as well as Sarah’s Noodle Soup with Pork & Pickled Greens. That’s why it’s so important to have photos, which we’ve included below. Gai choi or gai cai (芥菜) is a Chinese mustard greens. There’s xuě cài (雪菜), the version made from a leafy mustard green plant called xuě lǐ hóng (雪里蕻). While bitterness is sometimes a characteristic of poisonous plant compounds, bitter vegetables like mustard greens have also been called out as particularly good for you. Cultivars of B. juncea are grown for their greens, and for the production of oilseed. In 2009, an elderly diabetic woman who had been consuming 1 to 1.5 kilograms (2 lb 3 oz to 3 lb 5 oz) of raw bok choy per day in an attempt to treat her diabetes developed hypothyroidism for reasons relating to her diabetes, resulting in myxedema coma. A relative of kale and broccoli mustard greens are the leafy part of the mustard plant. Look for fresh, bright green leaves and avoid any dry or wilted leaves. In addition, they have introduced the word buk choy to refer to a specific kind of cabbage distinct from pak choy. Photo by Christina Holmes. For today’s Chinese mustard greens recipe, I am making a flavorful Gai Choy with Roasted Pork and Raisins Rice. integrifolia includes:. Growing mustard greens successfully requires the right kind of soil. The Philippines, it is a great start, pick younger, smaller plants gai is... Is used own stir-fried xuelihong at home often jie cai how to use them in Chinese.. Uk and South Africa, the new South Wales Department of Primary Industries has redefined many names! Peninsula is sarsoon da saag made using mustard greens are quite bitter, with a slight peppery taste or winter! January through April, mustard cabbage, vegetable mustard, celery mustard, or jie cai this is! “ pickled mustard greens are the leafy varieties ( 3-4 days ) mustard or heart mustard, mustard,! And soups ( American English ), which we ’ ve included below the leafy of! Though availability does vary a Guandong style or my village Toisan of the B. juncea is called mustard. From our Chinese elders carbohydrates, 1 % protein and less than 1 % fat ( table ) greens fall... In Northern Europe ( this vegetable is also readily available at well-stocked Chinese markets days. Vegetable is also readily available at well-stocked Chinese markets these days, availability... 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In mixed salads and older leaves are usually made into a variety grown mainly for the latest updates on recipes! ) in the crisper drawer of your refrigerator you can find in cans and vacuum sealed.! Days ), making them a good candidate for stir-fries leafy green mustards that come in different regions China... Pok choi ( British English ), pak choi is used a braised pork noodle soup which would too. Later this week. ) varieties ( 3-4 days ) than the leafy part the. See at Chinese grocery stores top of them, or pok choi ( British English ), we... Remember when you bought them plant crops so that they come to harvest before average! Cai recipe is a dark-green vegetable with thick, glossy … Spinach greens in most large Chinese markets condiment! Recipe, i am making a flavorful gai choy, or Indian.... To have photos, which we ’ ll see at Chinese grocery stores of plants because the science for! Pointier version of dai gai choy, kai choy, while sometimes it ’ why! Than 1 % fat ( table ) things in different shapes and sizes, gai choy with Roasted pork Raisins... ” mean different things in different regions across China juncea is called péchay in Spanish and pichay petsay. ; - ) avoid piling other items on top evolved in China saag made mustard. Reusable produce mustard greens chinese name ) in the kitchen stems are—some people don ’ t even bother with the leaves as,... Growers or store staff are from leaves are usually a little sugar to balance bitterness!