The Comma. From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she's interested in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other. Grammarly catches misplaced commas and other writing issues. If a sentence begins with an introductory phrase or dependent clause, it should have a comma immediately after it. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. Check out our general guide to comma usage. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. It is grammatically correct to use a comma before "and" (and other coordinating conjunctions such as "but", "or", "nor") only when it splits two independent clauses (i.e. Note that some style guides would not add the comma after the word “eggs”. They’re also important. 2. Commas may also be used to express interruptions to direct quotations. Commas are also used to separate independent clauses (phrases that can stand on their own) when a conjunction (like and) is used, as in the compound sentence: Mark went to the store, and … (Isn’t there always?) If the two independent clauses are short and have a strong connection, then the comma should be omitted. The answer is A. AP Stylebook recommends using Oxford comma only when necessary to preserve a sentence's meaning. Commas Before And are used primarily in two specific situations: An independent clause is a phrase that expresses a complete thought. Others refer to it as a serial comma or Harvard comma. You can separate adjectives with a comma only when the adjectives’ order is interchangeable. It was, moreover, a very poor effort. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. Alice asked John once, but only once, to forgive her. Sometimes we may see a comma before and(or another coordinating conjunction) that is appropriate for a reason unrelated to that conjunction. It’s often used to indicate a pause in a sentence or to separate items in a list. We could ar… By using our site you agree to our privacy policy. After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? In the example above, the serial comma is the one that separates birds from the and. 2. This is only true if the adjectives’ order is interchangeable. Whether it is correct to use a comma before a coordinating conjunction ("and", "but", "or", "nor", "for", "yet", "so") depends on the situation. Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. You should only use the comma in series of three or more. Once again, we have two independent clauses: It’s cold outside plus I can’t find my coat. The first clause, Sam tossed the ball could stand on its own as a complete sentence, which means it’s an independent clause. Writers tend to make this mistake when forming sentences in … Unfortunately, the answer isn’t entirely so black and white. When you have two independent clauses joined together by and, most style guides say that it’s OK to leave the comma out as long as the two independent clauses are very short and closely connected. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. The comma here improves legibility and is a better representation of spoken language (there is usually a pause before “whereas”). (Without the conjunction, two independent clauses typically form a run-on sentence). Use commas when writing a list of at least three words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. Therefore, we need a comma before and. Want to learn about other ways to use a comma? Commas are almost always used to separate items in a list or series that contains three or more things. If you are using the day-month-year format, however, commas are unnecessary. Here’s an example: The cake mix requires flour, sugar, eggs, and butter. Case 2 Because … (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare.) In other words, it can stand alone as a sentence. The sentence above contains two independent clauses (highlighted in green), so it requires a comma before and. A sentence can contain two independent clauses if they’re linked by a conjunction such as and, or, and but. The Serial Comma Helps to Prevent a Misreading Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. If you join them together with only a comma, they form a comma splice. Commas Before and in a Series. Just be consistent. Applications are due by 31 December 2016. 1. But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. “Whereas” is also used in legal documents in the sense of “because of the … Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. The proper … The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. If you are using “therefore” in the middle of a sentence to separate 2 independent clauses, then you will need to use a semicolon. The dog is well trained and good natured. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes your sentence structure clearer. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes … Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct … Mood: How to Use Tone and Mood in Your Writing, 5 Writing "Rules" That Are Really Guidelines, Beware of These Common Consistency Issues in Writing, There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma. When a conjunction (for example: and, or, and but) links two independent clauses, you need to put a comma before the conjunction. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford … There are three primary uses of conjunctions: When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect two independent clauses, a comma is always used. , First AI web content optimization platform just for writers, When To Use Comma Before Such As: The Definitive Guide, Whether you’re using an Oxford (or serial) comma. Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and. The word “thereby” could be used … If a sentence contains nonessential words, phrases, or clauses, use commas to set them apart. It is, furthermore, out of my … In other words, if each part of the sentence could stand alone as a sentence, then place a semicolon at the end of the first independent clause, follow that with “therefore,” and then place a comma … A comma is used to add clarity. When directly addressing a person, use a comma to set off their name, nickname, title, or term of endearment. The use of a comma with independent clauses is more straightforward. But wait! Insert a comma before the coordinating conjunction. For example: For example: I am going … This brief guide will shed light on the age-old question of whether to use a comma before the word and. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. More importantly, you can make it clear that you enjoy cooking, your friends, and cats. Today, … The answer is TRUE. By the way, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items. When to use a comma before and in a sentence depends on several factors: The answer to that depends on how you’re using the word and. There’s an exception. Although it’s not technically incorrect to include it, you risk having a choppy sentence. Or if you’re using it in lists that require an Oxford comma. You can, however, proceed with the corrections. This is because the sentence is talking about a particular person John. When it comes to grammatical conundrums, commas are often the culprit. Therefore, it’s important to use a comma when connecting two independent clauses, as you want to … Tone vs. The argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation. If that’s not the case, you can omit it. The answer is D. Commas should be used when joining two independent clauses, compiling a list, or introducing direct quotations. The answer is B. Some people (mostly, but not exclusively, Brits) consider the Oxford Comma to be a waste of ink, while others … If you’ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, this is what they were talking about. A comma is required after the final word of the first clause, before and (or whatever conjunction you’re using). We help brands stay relevant and gain visibility in search results. if you remove the "and" you will be left with two complete sentences), or if you're using it as an Oxford comma. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. Last year, PLC provided the material; and we, L&S Ltd, built the road. It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat. More specifically, some lists contain a comma that’s known as the Oxford comma. When a comma is used immediately before an and in a list, it’s called an Oxford comma. And that no, you don’t enjoy cooking your friends and cats. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' The Comma and Independent Clauses. A writer may choose to place a comma before and(or any conjunction) when the conjunction launches such a phrase: 1. Let Krista Grace Morris know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media. Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. 2. Here’s an example: It’s not wrong to add a comma before and in the sentence above, but doing so might make the sentence a little choppy. Whether it comes before and or elsewhere in a sentence, following basic comma rules can make using this misunderstood punctuation mark a breeze. Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it. Commas can be confusing. If you are referencing a day of the week and a date, use a … Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. Let’s take a closer look at each of these rules. Flawless spelling & grammar are just the beginning. Do you know the comma before “and” is known by the following names: Oxford Comma Harvard Comma Serial Comma Series Comma Here I’m gonna share the best practice to learn the Oxford comma that I … Sign in to access your personalized homepage, follow authors and topics you love, and clap for stories that matter to you. This probably the first use of commas you learned in school: separating items in a list of three or more things. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly.In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four … Certain style guides, such as the AP Stylebook, don’t advocate using this serial comma unless it’s absolutely necessary for preserving a sentence’s meaning. If two clauses in a sentence joined by the word, and, can stand alone, you should use a comma. The truth is that the purpose of a comma is to provide clarity to a sentence by removing any possible ambiguity or confusion. 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